Puerarin, also known as puerarin flavonoids, is a natural isoflavone carbon glycoside, which is the key ingredient of Kudzu root. Puerarin has fall blood sugar, blood lipid, protect blood vessels, oxidative stress resistance, resistance to infection, improve the insulin sensitivity index, and so on, and less adverse reaction, known as “phytoestrogens”, was clinically for the treatment of disease of heart head blood-vessel, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and diseases such as diabetes complications. This question will introduce the health benefits of kudzu root.
Treatment of diabetes
Puerarin can treat diabetes by lowering blood glucose concentration. Puerarin can up-regulate insulin receptor substrate IRS-1 and insulin-like growth factor IGF-1 protein, and promote the expression of insulin receptor InsR and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor PPARα, so as to achieve the purpose of lowering blood glucose in the treatment of diabetes.
In addition, puerarin can also inhibit the activity of α -glucosidase, thereby reducing the concentration of blood sugar, to achieve the purpose of treating diabetes. The study found that puerarin treatment of type 2 diabetes patients can improve the body’s sensitivity to insulin, puerarin drugs can reduce insulin resistance, thereby treating diabetes. Puerarin can also inhibit the production of TNF-α in plasma, improve the sensitivity of the body to insulin level, and reduce the blood glucose level.
In addition, the application of puerarin in diabetic retinopathy can help reduce blood flow resistance of ocular artery, accelerate blood flow speed, promote muscle artery dilation, and reduce local thrombosis, which has preventive and therapeutic effects on diabetic retinopathy and gestational diabetes.
Puerarin has an obvious inhibitory effect on the proliferation of tumor cells, and it has a therapeutic effect on tumor cells by promoting the apoptosis of tumor cells. Some scholars established prostate cancer PC3 cell model and treated PC3 cells with puerarin. The results showed that compared with the control group, puerarin treated PC3 cell proliferation protein expression level was significantly decreased, while the expression levels of apoptotic proteins Bax, Fas, caspase-3 and Caspase-8 were increased. These results indicate that puerarin can inhibit the proliferation of prostate cancer cells by regulating the activity of the proliferating protein Akt, and increasing the expression of apoptotic Bax and Fas proteins, thereby activating the caspase-3 apoptotic signaling pathway, and ultimately leading to the apoptosis of cancer cells. In addition, puerarin can also induce tumor cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway. In hepatoma cells, cytochrome C released by mitochondria interacts with adenosine triphosphate and apoptotic protease to activate caspase-9 and Caspase-3, leading to hepatoma cell-dependent apoptosis. Puerarin inhibits tumor growth by activating TLR4 /NF-κB pathway to promote apoptosis of tumor cells.
Protecting the liver
Puerarin has a protective effect on liver damage caused by alcohol poisoning. Alanine aminotransferase ALT, aspartate aminotransferase AST and total cholesterol CHOL were all abnormally elevated in liver injury caused by various factors. The mice were divided into the control group, model group and puerarin treatment group, and the expression levels of ALT, AST and CHOL proteins representing the degree of liver injury were observed. The results showed that the expression levels of ALT, AST and CHOL proteins in the model group were significantly increased compared with the control group, while the protein levels in the puerarin treatment group were decreased compared with the model group. In addition, the expression of ALT, AST, ALP and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly reduced in the puerarin treated group compared with the control group in the model of chronic alcohol-induced liver injury, suggesting that puerarin can mitigate chronic alcohol-induced liver injury by regulating inflammatory processes.
Anti arrhythmia, anti-angina pectoris
Studies have shown that puerarin can reduce the incidence of chloroforme-induced atrial fibrillation in Kunming mice, and significantly increase the threshold dose of cardiac arrest, ventricular premature systole, ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in SD rats induced by aconitine, suggesting that puerarin is suitable for the treatment of arrhythmia. Puerarin injection has a significant therapeutic effect on coronary heart disease angina pectoris, and its mechanism includes: firstly, it can reduce heart rate and blood pressure, improve vital signs, reduce myocardial oxygen consumption, dilate coronary arteries, improve myocardial hypoxia, ischemia and hemorheology indicators; Secondly, it can reduce blood viscosity, with softening blood vessels, improve atherosclerosis and repair vascular endothelial cells. Studies have proved that puerarin injection can not only improve the incidence of angina pectoris in elderly patients with coronary heart disease, but also dilate blood vessels, relieve hypoxia and ischemia, and further improve blood rheology, muscle oxygen consumption index and other indicators.
Effects on the cardiovascular system
Puerarin can significantly reduce the blood pressure of animals. The mice were anesthetized and injected with puerarin to produce a brief but significant drop in blood pressure and a slow heart rate. Puerarin can promote the local microvascular blood flow and movement of the amplitude increase, resulting in accelerated circulation velocity, promoting the normal brain microcirculation of the human body, reducing microcirculation obstacles. In addition, puerarin can also play a good role in improving the nail wrinkle microcirculation of patients with sudden deafness. Puerarin can clear blood vessels congestion, speed up blood flow, so as to restore the patient’s hearing. Puerarin can help treat arrhythmias. Puerarin contains beta-blockers, which fight premature heartbeats and ventricular tachycardia, reducing the incidence of arrhythmias. Puerarin can reduce tachycardia and play a good role in treating arrhythmia in the clinic. Puerarin can protect the ischemic myocardium, increase the blood flow of the ischemic myocardium and increase collateral blood flow to treat ischemic myocardium.
Above all, puerarin pharmacological activities are widespread, efficacy, side effects of small advantages have been recognized by the majority of people, has wide clinical application, it can not only for angina, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular system diseases such as hypertension, can also for retinal vein occlusion, optic atrophy, sudden deafness and other diseases of clinical therapeutic effect.
However, its side effects are also found, such as poor lipid solubility and water solubility of puerarin, low bioavailability of shortcomings also limit its application. However, in recent years, thanks to the application of some high biocompatibility polymer materials, a variety of puerarin nano preparations have been developed, such as liposomes, nanocrystalline/granule, polymer micelles, microemulsions, dendrimers, etc., which make puerarin evenly dispersed and easier to penetrate through the biofilm. Compared with traditional fast-release tablets, skeleton tablets, solid dispersions, and other slow-release preparations, the solubility, stability and bioavailability are increased.